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Angioplasty¬ is the technique of mechanically widening a narrowed or obstructed¬ blood vessel, typically as a result of¬ atherosclerosis. An empty and collapsed balloon on a guide wire, known as a¬ balloon catheter, is passed into the narrowed locations and then inflated to a fixed size using water pressures some 75 to 500 times normal¬ blood pressure¬ (6 to 20 atmospheres). The balloon crushes the fatty deposits, opening up the blood vessel for improved flow, and the balloon is then deflated and withdrawn.
Coronary artery bypass surgery, also known as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, and heart bypass¬ or¬ bypass surgery¬ is a¬ surgical procedure performed to relieve¬ angina¬ and reduce the risk of death from¬ coronary artery disease.¬ Arteries¬ or¬ veins¬ from elsewhere in the patient's body are¬ grafted¬ to the¬ coronary arteries¬ to bypass atherosclerotic¬ narrowings¬ and improve the¬ blood¬ supply to the¬ coronary circulation¬ supplying the¬ myocardium¬ (heart muscle).
Catheter ablation¬ is an invasive procedure used to remove a faulty electrical pathway from the¬ hearts¬ of those who are prone to developing¬ cardiac arrhythmias¬ such as atrial fibrillation, atrial flutter,¬ supraventricular tachycardias¬ (SVT) and¬ Wolff-Parkinson-White syndrome. It involves advancing several flexible catheters into the patient's blood vessels, usually either in the femoral vein, internal jugular vein, or subclavian vein. The catheters are then advanced towards the heart and high-frequency electrical impulses are used to induce the arrhythmia, and then ablate (destroy) the abnormal tissue that is causing it
SAME AS CORONARY ARTERY BYPASS SURGERY
A¬ coronary stent¬ is a¬ tube¬ placed in the¬ coronary arteries¬ that supply the¬ heart, to keep the arteries open in the treatment of¬ coronary heart disease. It is used in a procedure called percutaneous coronary intervention¬ (PCI). Stents reduce chest pain and have been shown to improve survivability in the event of an¬ acute myocardial infarction
Endoscopy¬ means¬ looking inside¬ and typically refers to looking inside the body for medical reasons using an¬ endoscope, an instrument used to examine the interior of a hollow organ or cavity of the body
A cardiac catheterization is a general term for a group of procedures that are performed using this method, such as¬ coronary angiography, as well as left ventrical angiography. Once the catheter is in place, it can be used to perform a number of procedures including¬ angioplasty, PCI (percutaneous coronary intervention)¬ angiography,¬ balloon septostomy, and an¬ Electrophysiology study
Pacemaker installation¬ surgery¬ is¬ performed to insert a pacemaker to help maintain regular heart beats.
Heart valve repair¬ is a¬ surgical technique¬ used to fix defects in¬ heart valves¬ in¬ valvular heart diseases, and provides an alternative to¬ valve replacement. Without further specification, it refers to¬ native heart valve repair, rather than repair of an¬ artificial heart valve.
Valve replacement¬ surgery is the replacement of one or more of the¬ heart valves¬ with either an¬ artificial heart valve¬ or a bioprosthesis (homograft¬ from human tissue or¬ xenograft¬ e.g. from pig). It is an alternative to¬ valve repair.