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The colonoscope has a small camera attached to a flexible tube. Unlike sigmoidoscopy, which can only reach the lower third of the colon, colonoscopy examines the entire length of the colon.
The most important kidney operation is nephrectomy, or complete removal of the kidney.¬ ¬ ¬ After removal of a kidney, patients can lead normal, healthful lives, as long as the remaining kidney is functioning well in its duty of making urine and performing other renal functions.¬
Liver surgery comprises various operations of the liver for different disorders. The most common operation performed on the liver is a resection (removal of a portion of the liver). The most typical indication for liver resection is a malignant tumor. Tumors can be primary (developed in the liver) or metastatic (developed in another organ, then migrated to the liver). The majority of liver metastases come from the colon. The single tumor or more than one tumor confined to either left or right side of the liver can be successfully resected with 5-year survival as high as 60%.
Prostate removal surgery involves removing a portion of the prostate gland or the whole gland through laparoscopy, abdominal incision or a combination of the two techniques:
A Whipple procedure is an operation most often done to remove a growth on the duodenum (the first portion of the small bowel), bile duct or head of the pancreas. It is also done for chronic pancreatitis or strictures of the bile duct or pancreatic duct . The operation consists of removing the gallbladder, part of the bile duct, the duodenum, and the head of the pancreas and sometimes the lower portion of the stomach